RURAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN NORTHERN DELTAThứ bẩy, ngày 30 tháng 11 năm 2013 cập nhật lúc 12:09
1. Overview of natural, socio-economic and environmental conditions
North Delta includes provinces of
Hanoi, Hai Phong, Bac Ninh, Vinh Phuc, Hai Duong, Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Ha , Nam Dinhand Ninh Binh. Nam
Its natural area is 1,481.2 hectares, accounting for 4.5% of the national area. The population in 2009 was 19.625 million, accounting for 22.75% of the population of the whole country, mainly Kinh people.
The Northern Delta is surrounded by forests, mountains and the
. The highland around the Delta separates the forestsof the Northeast and Northwest mountains. Sea here is shallow without major ocean currents so that people along the coastal areas mainly earn their living by agriculture, salt making and inshore fishing. Gulf of Tonkin
2. Traditional economic structure of farmers is mainly: Cultivation, breeding, aquaculture and fishing
The economic structure establishes the balance and maintains the relative stability for the surroundings.
In the economic structure of traditional agriculture, cultivation and breeding are traditional with close relationship. In this traditionalrelationship, breeding not only acts as a plant which processes waste products and crop products into animal protein to meet dailynutritional requirements for people, but also provides traction and organic fertilizer for the cultivation.
As organic agriculture, using manual labour for irrigation, as well as cultivation techniques by the ancestor’s experience, its productis basically clean, has low productivity, and little affects the surroundings.
3. Organizational structure of traditional rural society
The village is seen as a social and cultural unit. In terms of form: Village is a gathering point of residents. In terms of the origin:Village is the expansion and development of a family and line... Village is not an administrative organization but in history plays an important role in the management and organization of all aspects of the farmers. Therefore, the village conventions are established besidesthe State current laws.
Conventions clearly state rules of each village on life, production, organization and social relations, natural environment protection, cultural and spiritual activities etc.
The convention’s contents cover the essential issues of the village such as security protection, livestock wandering prevention, environmental protection, and support in the community.
4. Socio-economic development
Until the 1970s of the 20th century, the use of chemicals in agricultural production was still very limited in our country in general and in the northern delta region in particular. At that time, the population density was low, the land was fertile, fresh brown and rich in phosphorus and potassium; in agricultural production, the farmers mainly used organic fertilizers and green manure. Accordingly, the characteristic of the agricultural production was still organic agriculture in this period.
Along with the socio-economic development, the population began to increase rapidly. Rapid population growth and mostly no land expansion for agricultural production, thus, the farmland scale per household is very low » 0.24 ha/household. Therefore, income fromtraditionally agricultural production is not enough to meet the needs of people life.
5. Land policy and policy of science and technology application started changing in 1980s.
Starting with the Party Secretariat’s Directive 100 issued on January 13, 1981 on improving contractual work and expanding the piece work system to groups and laborers, (often referred to as Contractual system 100), following by Resolution 10 of the Politburo in 1988, and then the 1993 land law granting the long-term land use rights for peasant households, all have created the initiative in agricultural production.
Thus, in the early 1990s, along with the policy of market-oriented economy development, plant protection chemicals were used with a large volume; the farmers took the initiative in plant and domestic animal restructuring, intensive cultivation, increase in crops, and agricultural product diversification towards goods production that has increased the food output and developed the rural economy.
However, the environmental protection has not been given due attention, the social management is loose, the farmers pursue the enrichment strategy "by all means" despite the harm to the environment and consequently, the environment is heavily polluted.